Lurking amid the crowd of avatars is the proto-fascist Nietzsche—the proponent of pitilessness, hardness, and the will to power who is cited approvingly by such far-right gurus as Alain de Benoist, Richard Spencer, and Aleksandr Dugin.
Can a philosopher who has sown such confusion be said to possess a coherent identity? Or, as Bertrand Russell once argued, is Nietzsche merely a literary phenomenon? When I was in college, in the nineteen-eighties, the French Nietzsche held sway. It was the heyday of post-structuralism, and Nietzsche appeared to anticipate one of the central insights of that era: that we are at the mercy of ever-shifting systems and perspectives.
A mobile army of metaphors, metonyms, and anthropomorphisms. Truths are illusions about which one has forgotten that this is what they are. In the past few decades, other Nietzsches have come to the fore.
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Anglo-American philosophers have aligned him with various schools of post-analytic thought, seeing him as an idiosyncratic kind of psychologist or sociologist. He raged against democracy and egalitarianism, but also against nationalism and anti-Semitism. Nietzsche is often quoted in the chat rooms of the far right, and he also surfaces regularly in leftist discussions about the future of democracy.
Yet Nietzsche, like his fallen idol Richard Wagner , is at once emphatic and ambiguous, overbearing and elusive. I know my lot. One day my name will be linked to the memory of something monstrous [ etwas Ungeheueres ]—to a crisis like none there has been on earth, to the most profound collision of conscience, to a verdict invoked against everything that until then had been believed, demanded, held sacred. I am no man, I am dynamite.
The passage has been read as an eerie premonition of his future appropriation by the Nazis—although there is no way of knowing exactly what kind of crisis is meant. Ungeheuer is an ambiguous word, hovering between the monstrous and the gigantic. Here is the sumptuous difficulty of Nietzsche: when you drill down on a word, an abyss of interpretation opens. The church where his father preached still stands; Nietzsche, the scourge of Christianity, is buried in a plot next to the building.
The elder Nietzsche, like his son, was afflicted by severe physical and mental problems—violent headaches, epileptic strokes, amnesiac episodes—and died at the age of thirty-five, when Friedrich was four. Nietzsche himself had a mental breakdown in middle age. The old story that his breakdown stemmed from syphilis is now widely doubted; a likelier explanation is a hereditary neurological or vascular disorder. Neurologists in Belgium and Switzerland have concluded that he had cadasil , a genetic condition that causes repeated strokes. Nietzsche would soon assume a professorship in Basel, at the astonishingly young age of twenty-four, but he jumped at the chance to join the Wagner operation.
He then broke away, declaring his intellectual independence first with coded critiques and then with unabashed polemics. Accounts of this immensely complicated relationship are too often distorted by prejudice on one side or another. Nietzscheans and Wagnerians both tend to off-load ideological problems onto the rival camp; Prideaux succumbs to this temptation. Wagner, too, revered Greek culture, but he was fundamentally a man of the theatre, and tailored his ideals to the realities of the stage.
At the first Bayreuth Festival, in , Nietzsche was crestfallen to discover that a viable theatre operation required the patronage of the nouveau riche and the fashionable. Personal differences between the two men provide amusing anecdotes. Nietzsche made sporadic attempts at musical composition, one of which caused Wagner to have a laughing fit. The music is not very good, but it is not as bad as all that. But the disagreements went much deeper, revealing a rift between ideologies and epochs. Wagner embodied the nineteenth century, in all its grandeur and delusion; Nietzsche was the dynamic, destructive torchbearer of the twentieth.
When they first met, they shared an admiration for the philosophical pessimism of Arthur Schopenhauer, who saw a world governed by the insatiable striving of the will. Only through the renunciation of worldly desire, Schopenhauer posited, can we free ourselves from our incessant drives.
Aesthetic experience is one avenue to self-overcoming—an idea that the art-besotted Nietzsche seized upon. Wagner, by contrast, claimed to value compassion above all other emotions. In its place, Nietzsche praises hardness, force, cruelty. These views made Wagner wince, as the diaries of Cosima Wagner, his wife, attest.
Nietzsche not only rejected the sublime longings of nineteenth-century Romanticism; he also jettisoned the teleology of historical progress that had governed European thought since the Renaissance, and that had found its most formidable advocate in Hegel. Instead, Nietzsche grounded himself in a version of naturalism—the post-Darwinian conviction that humans are an animal species, led by no transcendent purpose. Between his final meeting with Wagner, in , and his mental collapse of , Nietzsche lived the life of an intellectual ascetic. Health problems caused him to resign his professorship in ; from then on, he adopted a nomadic life style, summering in the Swiss Alps and wintering, variously, in Genoa, Rapallo, Venice, Nice, and Turin.
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He wrote a dozen books, of increasingly idiosyncratic character, poised between philosophy, aphoristic cultural criticism, polemic, and autobiography. The landscape of the mind consumed his attention. He thought the way others feel. Translating Nietzsche is a difficult task, but the swagger of his prose, with its pithy strikes and sudden swerves, can be fairly readily approximated in English.
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Kaufmann, in his translations, brought to bear a strong, pugnacious style. A series of translations from Cambridge University Press covered the gaps. These show a less awe-inspiring side of the philosopher, as he jots down items from his reading and delivers utterances esoteric, mundane, and bizarre:.
Woman is so little satisfied with herself that she would rather permit herself to be beaten than—. The last thought is left blessedly unfinished. Should I show it to you in my mirror? A solution for all its riddles? And you yourselves are also this will to power—and nothing else! He generally resisted the epic long-windedness of nineteenth-century German prose, but here he makes an exception as he verbally acts out the condition of universal flux.
Rather than fleeing abjectly from the will, as in Schopenhauer, one should seek to harness it, master it, ride it out. In this regard, language means, which help to articulate the experienced emotions, are selected and formulated by the authors of reviews to convey most clearly and accurately their positive or negative experience of. Kolesov I. Representation of the tourist object through the prism of evaluation gradually forms a stable image of this place in the readers' consciousness and the authors themselves.
The Kuzbass ski resort Sheregesh has lately acquired incredible ratings and wide coverage exactly in the discourse of reviews and in social networks. This is explained by the demand for equipped mountain areas for skiing and snowboarding among Russian and foreign tourists. Nevertheless, as the researchers note, in the regional picture of the world, the image of Sheregesh occupies peripheral positions Kondratyeva, Frolova, ; Saveleva, In this regard, the task of studying the linguistic mechanisms of creating the image of the Siberian ski resort in non-professional touristic discourse is one of the most urgent.
In the discursive construction of the resort image, we distinguish two main levels of its formation: macro-textual and micro-textual. A macro-textual image is defined as common to a series of texts and includes the concept of building reviews formed by site moderators. The analysis of the macrostructure of the touristic review discourse shows that the micro level of this discourse specific texts is partially determined by its macro-level organization. This conformance is asymmetrical, however, the isomorphic structure of the discourse of touristic reviews of the ski resort Sheregesh at the macro and micro levels can be traced.
Thus, individual websites highlight the parameters for the reviews formation, which are based on the content - factual filling of the text. On the website "Otzovik" in the section "Sheregesh, Kemerovo region, Russia" five parameters are offered in the pre-text space to assess and construct the review Fig. Hence, the main invariant themes are determined at the macro level for creating texts-reviews of a touristic object. On the website "resorts. The macrostructure of discourse reviews of the Tripadvisor.
Structuring the website of reviews according to objective thematic or subjective estimated models does not have a direct relationship with the micro-level organization of the touristic reviews' discourse. On the contrary, these models have representation regardless of the general organization of the discursive feedback space specified by the website.
The microtextual image of the resort is constructed through the analysis of the main thematic sections of each text, mainly revealed through the propositional structure of the texts. When analyzing the propositions of the texts of the reviews discourse, it is advisable to distinguish the following invariant sections Table 1.
Natural and climatic conditions Nature quality of snow and mountain slopes ; climate temperature amplitude, seasonal features ; ecology air. Cultural and sports events Category of the rest, significant events, atmosphere, sports activities. Human factor The number of tourists, attitude of the local population, attitude of other tourists. Since the objective and subjective characteristics of the image in the discourse are inseparable, they have a fused representation in the reviews texts about the tourist object. Nevertheless, the macro-strategy content of creating the website space determines the presence of an informative component in the text of the tourist review.